Sensor technology has considerably changed over the last decades and fiber optics contribution has been important for this evolution. Optical fibers are used either to transmit the signal of traditional sensors when immunity to electromagnetic interference is necessary or as the sensor itself. A number of fiber parameters are used as sensing technology such as Rayleigh, Raman or Brillouin scattering, polarization rotation, attenuation, wavelength transmission with Bragg gratings, etc.
fibers have to be selected according to their transmission performance of the appropriate wavelength. Particularly when the sensor signal happen to be weak.
Ultraviolet light increase significantly attenuation of the silica core. This called “solarization” of the fiber. When UV wavelength are used for the sensor application it is necessary to chose non-solarization fibers
Infrared light is used for many sensing applications. Silica core fibers are limited to about 2µm wavelength. For longer wavelength other materials can be offered such as fluorozirconat also called Zblan, or sapphire fibers.
harsh environment such as high temperature, high pressure, vacuum, radiations, etc. is often associated with sensing applications. This is a difficult challenge for optical fibers. Fiber protection must be carefully adapted for the reliability of the systems.